SAN MARINO WORKSHOP ON ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY 


WORKSHOP AIMSESSIONS ON ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY FOR MATTERThe primary aim of the workshop in its astrophysical matter sessions is to conduct technical comparisons between 20th century cosmological views based on the exact validity of special relativity throughout the universe, and new cosmological views based on recent mathematical, physical and experimental evidence suggesting a mere approximate validity of special relativity within physical media as occurring in innergalactic media, intergalactic media, and interior astrophysical media at large, such as in the interior of stars, quasars and black holes. For this aim, the following aspects will be technically considered during the workshop and submitted to collegial discussion:
1) Reviews of experimental data on Hubble's law on the cosmological redshift as being proportional to the distance from Earth; review of the interpretation of the cosmological redshift as being due to the apparent expansion of the universe and consequential acceleration of the expansion with the distance from Earth; review of the historical objections against the expansion of the universe because placing Earth at the center of the universe, the unrealistic extreme energy needed to accelerate billions of galaxies for billions of years, and other reasons; review of the historical alternative interpretations of the cosmological redshift without the expansion of the universe as being due to "tired light" and other models; review of the origin of the big bang conjecture in support of the conjecture on the expansion of the universe and its inability to represent the acceleration of the expansion and other cosmological data; review of the more recent experimental data on the redshift of galactic stars, their interpretation as being due to similar speeds for peripheral galactic stars; review of the conjecture of dark matter as well as its apparent inability to provide a numerical representation of innergalactic dynamics, e.g., when uniformly distributed; review of the origin of the additional conjecture of dark energy and its inability to provide a numerical representation of galactic dynamics, e.g., because predicting a decrease of the universe expansion due to increased gravitational attraction among galaxies, rather than the needed increase of the expansion; apparent impossibility of representing intergalactic dynamics; and other 20th century cosmological conjectures.
2) Identification of the technical origin of these conjectures (universe expansion, acceleration of the expansion, big bang, dark matter, dark energy, and all that) in the generally tacit assumption of the exact validity throughout the universe of Einstein's special relativity at large, and the exact validity of Doppler's shift law in particular, with assumed primitive exact validity of the LorentzPoincare' symmetry.
3) Review of the experimental measurements [2,3,4] establishing deviations of the Doppler's law within physical media, such as planetary atmosphere, astrophysical chromospheres, innergalactic media, intergalactic media, and interior astrophysical bodies at large. These measured deviations from special relativity as known under the name of Santilli isoredshift and isoblueshift, and are defined as shifts of frequency of light propagating within physical media without any relative motion between the source, the medium and the observer. Representation via Santilli isoredshifts of available cosmological redshift as due to propagation of light within physical media, with consequential elimination of universe expansion, acceleration of the expansion, big bang, dark matter, dark energy and all that (see also Lectures IA, IIIA and VA, Ref. [1]).
4) Review of the axiomatic difficulties for special relativity in being exactly valid within physical media, such as: impossibility of introducing inertial reference frames due to resistance with consequential impossibility of formulating basic relativity laws, violation of the relativistic sum of speeds, impossibility if reducing to photons all electromagnetic waves (e.g., when with one meter wavelength) and the impossibility for photons to provide (when applicable) a numerical representation of experimental data for the angle of refraction, the reduction of speed of light, etc; review of Santilli's isotopies of 20th century methods for quantitative treatment of interior problems, including the isotopies of Lie's theory, and special relativity as well as the universal LorentzPoincare'Santilli (LPS) isosymmetries for all infinitely possible spacetimes with a symmetric (3+1)dimensional metric; unique and unambiguous derivation of the isoshift laws from the LPS isosymmetry; and related aspects.
9see Lecture of Levels II and III, Ref. [1]).
5) Study of independent experimental confirmation of Santilli isoredshifts, such as: those by L. Holmlid [5,6]; verification via the analysis of radio waves from spaceships when moving from propagation in vacuum to propagation through planetary atmospheres; and other means. Confirmation or denial that these measurements provide a second independent experimental ground for the absence of universe expansion, acceleration of the expansion, big bang, dark matter, dark energy and all that.
6) Study of the forgotten experimental discovery by Halton Arp [8] via gamma spectroscopic measurements of quasars physically connected to a galaxy while having dramatically different cosmological redshifts. Study of related aspects, such as the internal redshift or blueshift of light originating from stars in the ingterior of galaxies.
7) Verification or denial that the sole known quantitative interpretation of Arp's measurements is that proposed by Santilli in the early 1980s and then formalized via the isoredshift. According to this representation, providing a numerical representation of the large differences of cosmological redshifts ,of all known pairs of quasars and associated galaxies (see, e.g., Ref. [8] of 1992), light exits the huge quasar chromospheres isoredshifted much more than the comparatively less isoredshift of light existing the attached galaxy due to a dramatically smaller density of the innergalactic medium. Confirmation or denial that the isoredshift interpretation of Arp's discovery provides a third independent experimental ground for the absence of the universe expansion, acceleration of the expansion, big bang, dark matter, dark energy and all that.
8) By recalling that the energy, rather than the mass, is the source of the gravitational field, as established by Einstein's field equations, we shall study the possibility that the energy of planetary and astrophysical bodies can be assumed as known, but not the corresponding masses due to the unknown value of the maximal causal speed within physical media, because of deviations from the speed of light in vacuum that are as inherent in Santilli isored and isoblueshifts [9].
9) Study of the emerging new cosmological models of the matter component of the universe without universe expansion, big bang, dark matter, and dark energy, and comparison of their plausibility with 20th century models [2,3,4].
REFERENCES
The references on 20th century cosmological models are so vast to prevent discriminatory listings. The main references on 21st century models pertinent for the Workshop are the following:
[1] John Pace, Chairman,
[2] R. M. Santilli, Experimental verification of isoredshift with possible absence of universe expansion, big bang, dark matter and dark energy,
The Open Astronomy Journal Vol. 3, pages 120, 2010
[3] R. M. Santilli, Experimental verification of isoredhisft and its cosmological implications,
Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics, Rhodes, Greece, September 1925, 2010, T. E. Simos, Editor,
AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 1281, pp. 882885 (2010).
[4] R. M. Santilli, Isominkowskian Geometry for Interior Dynamical Problems,
Contributed paper in Cosmology, Quantum Vacuum, and Zeta Functions,
Diego S‡ezG—mez, Sergei Odintsov, Sebastiˆ Xamb— Editors, Springer, 2011.
[5] L. Holmlid, Detection of frequency red shifts and blue shifts
for singlemode IR laser radiation in Rydberg matter, Appl. Phys. B 79, 871Ð877 (2004),
[6] L. Holmlid, Redshifts in Space Caused by Stimulated Raman Scattering
in Cold Intergalactic Rydberg Matter with Experimental Verification, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Vol. 100, No. 4, 2005, pp. 637Ð644.
[7] H. Arp. {\it Quasars Redshift and Controversies.} Interstellar Media, Berkeley (1987). Sulentic JW. Frontiers of Fundamental Physics. Barone M. and Selleri F. editors. Plenum 1994.
[8] R. Mignani, Quasars redshifts in isoMinkowski spaces, Physics Essay 1992; 5, 531,
[9] R. M. Santilli, Are masses of elementary particles and of the Solar system truly known?
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the LieAdmissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University (2011), pages 3744 The above technical knowledge is greatly encouraged in order to maintain a high level of participation and avoid non technical discussions.
SESSIONS ON ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY FOR ANTIMATTEROne of the biggest scientific imbalance of the 20th century has been the treatment of matter at all levels, from Newtonian mechanics to second quantization, while antimatter was solely treated at the level of second quantization. This imbalance originated from the fact that Einstein's special and general relativities have no means for a quantitative differentiation between neutral matter and antimatter, and even for charged antimatter particles there exist inconsistencies in quantization and other problems.
A most significant consequence of the above imbalance is that antimatter has been mostly ignored in astrophysics and cosmology until recently. In particular, the absence of research in the field has left open to this writing the problem of the identification of methods and procedures needed for the detection of antimatter asteroids, as an evidently necessary for the very protection of our civilization. In fact, our planet has suffered in the past considerable devastation due to antimatter asteroids, such as the 1908 Tunguska explosion in Siberia that, despite the equivalent energy of one thousand d atomic bombs, left no crater or so9lid residue whatsoever in the soil, thus being solely representable on serious scientific grounds as due to an antimatter asteroid that annihilated in our matter atmosphere (the hypothesis of a comet has been disqualified because grossly nonquantitative on various grounds, see Refs. [a,b] below).
A further important aim of the workshop is that of initiating systematic studies in the new field of antimatter astrophysics and cosmology on. The studies will be conducted on strict ground of scientific democracy for qualified inquiries, by therefore comparing the following opposing lines:
1. Review of the predictions of Einstein's special relativity essentially suggesting that there exist only one type of light and, therefore, light is predicted as being refracted from both matter and antimatter. Under this hypothesis, antimatter asteroids are predicted as being detectable with Sun light in the same way as we protect our planet by observing matter asteroids with Sun light. The same theories also predict that antimatter stars and galaxies emit the same light as that emitted by matter stars and galaxies and, therefore, the former can be seen in the same way as we observe the latter.
2. Review the predictions of Santilli isodual relativity specifically constructed for the treatment of antimatter at all levels, from Newtonian Mechanics to second quantization, thus achieving for the first time a full democracy of treatment between matter and antimatter (see Lectures IIE and IIIE of Ref. [1], papers [b,c,d,e] and general review [f]).
By remembering that charge conjugation is an antiHermitean conjugation (although solely holding on a Hilbert space), Santilli has first constructed the needed new mathematics, known as isodual mathematics, and consisting of an antiHermitean image of the entire mathematics underlying special relativity, including isodual numbers, isodual spaces, isodual algebras, isodual symmetries, etc. Thanks and only following the achievement of the missing new mathematics, classical and operator isodual mechanics and relativity for the treatment of antimatter was then constructed. It should be stressed that the isodual relativity is verified by ALL experimental evdience on antimatter available to date, in both classical and particle physics.
Isodual relativity implies the necessary prediction that antimatter light is different from matter light because, for evident consistency, all features of antimatter light have to be antiHermitean to the corresponding features of matter light, including all physical quantities as well as their units. The resulting new light, called isodual light, is predicted as being repelled (rather than attracted) by matter, and have additional experimentally measurable features.
In particular, ordinary matter light is predicted to be absorbed without refraction when hitting an antimatter asteroid, thus causing a serious problem for our safety [b], as a necessary condition not to violate the principle of matterantimatter annihilation and prevent the violation of other laws. In conclusion, more adequate theories of antimatter predict that we have indeed a serious problem for the security of our planet, the identification of means to detect antimatter asteroids. The study of this open problem will be a central objective of the sessions in antimatter.
Additional attention will be devoted to the existence of antimatter in the universe that is now believed as being essentially ignorable. However, the prediction of annihilation of antimatter light when hitting matter (such as the lenses of our telescopes) indicates that we may have not been able to observe antimatter stars or galaxies until now [b]. Consequently, antimatter can exist in the universe in a scale significantly if not dramatically bigger than that predicted by Einsteinian theories. Special sessions of the workshop will be dedicated to these open astrophysical and cosmological problems (see monograph [g] for a general review).
REFERENCES
[a] John Pace, Chairman,
[b] R. M. Santilli, Can antimatter asteroids, stars and galaxies be detected with current means?
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the LieAdmissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University (2011) pages 2536.
[c] A. P. Mills, Possibilities of measuring the gravitational mass of electrons and positrons in free horizontal flight Hadronic J. vol. 19, 7796 (1996).
[d] V. de Haan, Proposal for the realization of Santilli comparative test on the
gravity of electrons and positrons via a horizontal supercooled vacuum tube,
Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the LieAdmissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University (2011) pages 5767.
[e] J. DunningDavies, Thermodynamics of antimatter via Santilli's isodualities.
[f] R. M. Santilli, Isodual Theory of Antimatter with Application to Antigravity, Grand Unification and the Spacetime Machine R.M.Santilli, Springer 2001
[g] I. Gandzha and J Kadeisvili, New Sciences for a New Era,
Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011), The above technical knowledge is greatly encouraged in order to maintain a high level of participation and avoid non technical discussions.


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